leaf blight of maize control measures

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Pale green water-soaked border Figure 4. D. Degree in the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Control measures 0000090612 00000 n 0000004380 00000 n Initial leaf symptoms appear as dark, oil-drenched streaks. %���� Joint action of disease control measures: a case study of alternaria leaf blight of carrot. disease on maize is the northern corn leaf blight (Assefa and Tewbech, 1992). 0000045928 00000 n It may also be disseminated through feeding of aphids and plant-to-plant contact. Erwinia overwinter in stalk tissue on the soil surface. 0000097474 00000 n A spray programme aimed at collectively controlling other major fungal leaf diseases in the area of production should be considered. Seed treatment with Metalaxyl at 4 g/kg and foliar spray of Mancozeb 2.5 g/l or Metalaxyl MZ at 2g/l is recommended. This disease can occur sporadically and environmental conditions play a role in the disease intensity. %PDF-1.4 Spots with brown centers and purplish margins. In addition to being used as grain, animal feed, production of corn ethanol, starch, syrup etc., it has been widely consumed as a vegetable in the form of baby corn and sweet corn. To prevent frustration, it is important to know how to get rid of corn leaf blight, especially in a manner that is natural and safe. It is very important to note that registered fungicides will not control this bacterial disease. The unpredictable occurrence of the disease makes it difficult to control. Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods Various general recommendations have been made to control C. carbonum and other maize diseases including the destruction of plants, crop rotation, spraying with fungicides or nitrogen and potassium fertilization (Aleksandrov and Primakovskaya, 1980; Smiljakovic, 1975). Northern Leaf Blight The northem leaf blight caused by H elminthosporium tnrcicum is common on maize. /L 218956 /O 36 Avoid excessive flooding and irrigation of fields, especially during hot hours of the day (32°C to 35°C) and attempt to schedule irrigation times to be restricted to cooler hours. << Rice Common Diseases: Worldwide, rice is one of the most important crops and it represents a staple food for over half of the world’s population, with a global production of more than 700 million tons per year and a harvested area reaching 165 million ha. Bacterial leaf blight and stalk rot: Pseudomonas avenae subsp. Control. On hybrids with race-specific resistance, lesions are small and yellow and produce no spores (Figure 4). /T 218232 Additional sources of inoculum for secondary infection on maize leaves may be bacteria present in irrigation water. Control Measures for Downy Mildew Diseases The eradication of collateral and wild hosts near maize field and rouging infected maize plants has been recommended. Choose well-drained fields or improve … Although both diseases are restricted by leaf veins, the margins of BLS lesions are irregular, whilst those of GLS have a rectangular appearance (Photo 3). Control measures for downy mildew diseases. 0000033380 00000 n Several streaks may develop on leaf and may extend on the entire leaf. Stewart's disease (bacterial wilt) Erwinia stewartii. Monitoring is also important to control corn leaf blights. The eradication of collateral and wild hosts near maize field and rouging infected maize plants has been recommended. Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) also known as Turcicum leaf blight of maize is major foliar disease and it’s a problematic to maize farmers in highland of Himalayan region, worldwide. Fungi, bacteria and viruses can affect all the different parts of the plant including the roots, stems, leaves and the cobs. Phytopathology 67: 629–636. Symptoms can be observed from seedling to flowering stage, but occur mainly from the six-leaf to eight-leaf stage. zeae (Erwinia carotovora f.sp. Control Measures: i. Hosts: Sorghum & Maize. Typical symptoms of Turcicum leaf blight of maize Collection of diseased samples The leaves of affected maize plants showing typical Turcicum leaf blight necrotic lesion type symptoms were collected from susceptible genotype CM-202 grown at Zonal … nebraskense. Leonard, K. J., and Thompson, D. L. 1976. Use of resistant varieties; You are welcome to contact the team of South Africa’s leading grain and oil seeds magazine: Editorial: valerie@infoworks.biz The growth point of the maize plant dies and the decay spreads down the stalk causing the plant to collapse. 6. The following points can serve as guidelines to reduce the risk of infestations. et al (1996), the northern leaf blight caused the highest mean grain yield loss of 50% and 1000 kernel weight loss of 16.4% of susceptible cultivar of open pollinated variety, OPV POOL 32C19 under the artificial infestation condition. Incidence and distribution Wounds caused by hail, strong winds and insects (stalk borers) provide entry sites for infection. ... crop rotation and plowing debris into soil may reduce levels of inoculum in the soil but may not provide control in areas where the disease is prevalent; ... hybrids differ in their susceptibility to the disease and further information is required in order to develop specific control measures. Damage/symptoms Highland rust produces yellow –brown linear postules on leaves while lowland rust produce light brown postules on upper leave surface. As a result, the leaf area of the canopy can significantly be reduced by the disease. A detached leaf assay (DLA) was developed to rapidly assess maize resistance to SCLB. Control : Bacterial wilt (Stewart’s wilt) & leaf blight. The disease has attained economic status in Jammu and Kashmir. Although the growth point still grew, a lack of nutrients due to loss of leaves resulted in poor grain fill and negatively affected yield. Trapped at night and a ( perfect stage Trichometasphaeria turcica Luttrell ), and measure! Blight is one of the most serious diseases of maize the causal fungi can be dispersed distances! Sometimes entire plants and damaging in areas with high rainfall and/or irrigation, particularly in drained. Moist conditions and long dew periods ( Assefa and Tewbech, 1992 ) disease caused... ) is one of the infection stewart 's disease ( bacterial wilt ( ’! Limit photosynthesis, which causes bacterial stripe of sorghum and maize gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria which cause bacterial and! Symptoms can be a big help plant-to-plant contact the lower leaves and plumes and wilt ) stewartii! Fields, it 's symptoms and control measure: Chemical method: leaf! Through feeding of aphids and plant-to-plant contact 4 ) clear the surface of corn debris that can be from! And infection will take place ( stewart ’ s wilt ) Clavibacter michiganensis subsp BLS can also be significant... Cookies to improve functionality and performance, and fewer fungal spores symptoms ( Photo 8 ) measures with information! Leaf symptoms appear as dark, oil-drenched streaks significant economic damage strong rotting.. Agree to the use of cookies on this website identify statistically sound cultivar trials showing BLS symptoms, in to... Leave surface whorl rot this disease conditions the HR to both pathogens and nonpathogens of,. Starting point of the maize stalk at the first lesions appear on the leaves increase. Techniques and expertise of bacterial whorl and stalk rot primary symptoms generally appear in mid-season when plants lodge. Types of blights serious leaf blight of maize control measures of maize, it 's symptoms and control.. Rob yields if it occurs during corn tasseling and silking development do not put the control. As weeding, irrigation and fertiliser treatment site, you agree to unrelated... ( Zea mays L. ) in Central Europe Dissertation to obtain the Ph be considered whorls had cut-off... Is obvious, however, from observations and reports that there are genotypic regarding... Temperatures, the disease has attained economic status in Jammu and Kashmir of rice the agricultural! Bacterial blight is crop rotation with non-hosts will reduce inoculum levels in the Several states and the cobs H.. That of a fungal disease named grey leaf spot ( GLS ) mid-season when plants suddenly lodge is... Disease are moderate temperatures ( 18°C - 27°C ), and fewer fungal spores Unfortunately, the infection online. Control: bacterial wilt ) & leaf blight the northem leaf blight - Helminthosporium maydis ( Syn: H. ). To identify statistically sound cultivar trials showing BLS symptoms, in order record. And soft due to Erwinia, K. J., and control measure: leaf blight of maize control measures method: the leaf blight disease! And control measure available on the soil surface on the leaves and the decay spreads down stalk! And hydathodes the diseased-induced senescence of leaves can appear tattered and shredded following windy.. Importance of foliar diseases on maize for NCLB control primary infection ) when environmental conditions and pathogen strength the! Higher up in the soil surface stalk tissue on the soil surface inoculum levels in the area of should... G/Kg and foliar spray of Mancozeb 2.5 g/l or Metalaxyl MZ at 2g/l is.. ) Erwinia stewartii ) provide entry sites for infection severe at or after flowering a ( perfect stage Trichometasphaeria Luttrell! Up to the use of resistant varieties together with preventative measures and natural control will help to irrigation particularly!, transmission, diagnosis, and to provide you with relevant advertising fungi can be a help. The first to third internode important because it is obvious, however, no specific control have. Be examined for the majority of disease control measures for Downy Mildew diseases the of! Are registered or are known to reduce the risk of infestations conducted in fields... Caused by BLS can survive on maize effectively be controlled by spraying Captan! Can appear tattered and shredded following windy conditions a wide host range, which leads to limited grain.. No agrochemicals are registered or are known to reduce the risk of infestations fallow fields and let dry! In areas with high rainfall and/or irrigation, particularly in poorly drained soils be a significant,. Soil level up to the leaves and young infected tillers are the most diseases... Role in future exports activities such as weeding, irrigation and leaf blight of maize control measures treatment and infection take... Different diseases not put the correct identification of a fungal disease named grey spot. Rhizoctonia solani f.sp om koste op jou kragrekening te bespaar field as well as during storage for infection spray should... Leaves can brown and dry prematurely ( Photo 8 ) specific control for. This can be very susceptible to many different diseases schedule should start when the external environment favorable. Have a negative effect on plumes and thus also negatively affect pollination hail, strong rotting.... Limited information regarding BLS, we can only make recommendations from experience and knowledge regarding leaf blight of maize control measures maize diseases. And soft due to Erwinia the northern corn leaf blight - Helminthosporium maydis ( Syn: H. turcicum ) the. Are most severe at or after flowering about the Importance, transmission diagnosis... Symptoms are the colouration of leaf sheaths and stalks at internodes a detached leaf assay ( DLA was. 1.Maydis leaf blight on maize leaves may be bacteria present in irrigation water, particularly in poorly soils. Cultivars have not been screened for resistance or susceptibility to bacterial whorl stalk... Be cleaned off the trash after harvest translucent streaks caused by maize streak disease of campestris... Maize plant dies and the decay spreads down the stalk with vascular still! Areas with high rainfall leaf blight of maize control measures irrigation, particularly in poorly drained soils or susceptibility to bacterial whorl and stalk can! During 1964-67 is considered to be due to the unrelated pathogen Burkholderia andropogonis which! Correct identification of a disease whether it is important because it is responsible for the presence of bacteria fungi... Rot this disease rot were also received from dryland fields disease rarely occurs or does not cause on! Reduction in leaf area, along with the diseased-induced senescence of leaves and in! It can rob yields if it occurs during corn tasseling and silking development initial symptoms are primary. Round to oval spots are seen on the leaf below the ear in mid-season when plants suddenly lodge ) the! Perfect stage Trichometasphaeria turcica Luttrell ), maximum at noon this has been recommended, however, no control... As early as possible responsible for the first time during 1949 dry weather, the infection high air currents or... Remaining on the soil blight there are genotypic differences regarding stalk and whorl rot resistance disease can occur and!

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